Course Overview

An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. Arc furnaces range in size from small units of approximately one ton capacity (used in foundries for producing cast iron products) up to about 400 ton units used for secondary steelmaking. Arc furnaces used in research laboratories and by dentists may have a capacity of only a few dozen grams. Industrial electric arc furnace temperatures can be up to 1,800 degrees Celsius, while laboratory units can exceed 3,000 °C. Arc furnaces differ from induction furnaces in that the charge material is directly exposed to an electric arc, and the current in the furnace terminals passes through the charged material. 

Rapid developing of steel industry technology over the last decades has tended to manufacture steel more economically and with great flexibility, so, "Secondary Metallurgy" or as called "Ladle Metallurgy" technique is introduced. This technique is intended to override the difficulties of using low grades raw materials such as high sulfur coke or lean iron ore. The desire need and the rising demand of the high quality steels accelerated the developing of larger and more efficient melting and processing furnaces (as the Ultra High Power Electric Furnace) and the use of the ladle metallurgy. 

Secondary steel making is a relatively recent addition to the steel making cycle and the improved slag technology has allowed the process to become very efficient. This course is designed to enhance the knowledge of operation personnel in steel making. The course is compiled to suit candidates with knowledge of the steel industry who wish to better understand the whole process and the practices which can optimize the performance of a steel melting shop.

Course Objective

Upon completion of this course, the trainees will be aware and understanding of the following:

·         What the electric arc furnace is? Its history and developments

·         Electrical and mechanical features of the furnace

·         Furnace charges, scrap grades, raw materials alloying and fluxes

·         The physical, scientific and technical meaning of ladle (secondary) metallurgy (LRF),

·         Concepts of ladle treatment systems,

·         Basics for the requirements and use of LRF,

·         Technologies, modern processes and developments in the system,

·         Advantages and why to apply in a steel making shop,

·         Temperature and chemical control of steel melt,

·         Timing and methods for alloy additions,


·         The meaning of refining of steel, 

Who Should Attend

This course is suitable for Engineers, Supervisors and Technicians for the steel making shops using electric arc furnaces for steel making.

Course Content

Module (01) Introduction

1.1       The Electric arc furnace

1.2       Environmental Aspects

Module (02) Electrical & Mechanical Features of Arc Furnaces

2.1       The electric supply

2.2       Electrode regulation

2.3       The electric arc

2.4       DC furnace

2.5       Electric arc furnace design

2.6       Cooling system

Module (03) Scrap and Raw Materials Management

3.1       Scrap grades

3.2       Scrap charge

3.3       In-plant scrap

3.4       EAF melting using mainly DRI;

3.5       Importance of slag (Refining Steel and Protection of Refractories)

3.6       Process efficiency

Module (04) Chemistry of Steel Making

4.1       Steel from iron ore

4.2       Electric arc steel conversion

Module (05) Alternate Energy Supplies

5.1       Scrap preheating

5.2       Oxygen

5.3       Oxygen – fuel burners

5.4       Post combustion

Module (06) Refractories

6.1       Types of refractories

6.2       Electric arc furnace refractories

Module (07) Ladle Technique

7.1       Requirements for Arc furnace melting

7.2       Tapping of arc furnace

7.3       Physical and chemical processes in the ladle

7.4       Ladle processes

Module (08) Stirring

8.1       Inert gas bubbling

8.2       Induction stirring

8.3       Pulsative mixing (PM)

8.4       Argon bubbling

Module (09) Addition and Injection of Materials and Powders

9.1       Powder injection

9.2       Immersion practice

Module (10) De-oxidation

10.1    Technique

10.2    Equilibrium

10.3    Materials

Module (11) De-Sulphurization

11.1    Technique

11.2    Equilibrium

11.3    Materials

Module (12) Slag Making

12.1    Slag forming agent

12.2    Slag fluidizing agent

Module (13) Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel

13.1    Where inclusions form

13.2    How inclusions form

Module (14) Inclusions Morphology Control

14.1    Sulphide shape control

14.2    Oxide shape control

Module (15) Vacuum Treatment

15.1    Vacuum degassing VD

15.2    Vacuum oxygen decarburization VOD

Module (16) Requirements for Vacuum Treatment Practice

16.1    Degassing

16.2    Removal of non metallic inclusions

16.3    Desulphurization

16.4    Decarburization

16.5    Homogeneity of temperature and composition

Module (17) Continuous Casting

17.1    Best practices

17.2    Metallurgy of Casting,

17.3    Re-oxidation prevention,

17.4    Casting defects and prevention,


17.5    Special difficulty with peritectic alloys.