Course Overview

This unique volume provides a comprehensive overview of all the major aspects of modern drinking water systems in the western European context. It not only covers the theoretical principles, but also the historical background and practical aspects of design and operation, legislation, planning and finance of drinking water supply in its social and economic context.

The principles and practices are illustrated using experiences from The Netherlands. The Dutch drinking water supply is well known for its multiple barrier systems and high technical standards. The Dutch drinking water is of high quality and does not contain chlorine, and the Dutch therefore readily drink tap water and do not see the need to buy bottled water or in-house filters, with their drawbacks on national economics, public health and the environment. This illustrative overview can be used as a reference for other countries and regions.

Bringing water from its source to a desirable drinking state requires a thorough understanding of the principles and practices of drinking water characterization and the knowledge of both the commonly used conventional technologies and some of the newer more advanced treatment technologies. This course meets this need.

Course Objectives

• To impart an understanding of the types of contaminants present in raw waters, how these vary from source to source and the impact of these contaminants upon the nature of the water and how it can be used and treated.

• To provide a sound working knowledge of both conventional and advanced treatment processes for the treatment of water from various sources and bring it to the standards suited for drinking purpose.

• To provide methods to use the testing results to understand how the plant is operating and to optimize the operation and/or troubleshoot problems.

Who Should Attend

Facility/utility engineers, consulting engineers, plant managers, chemical technologists and technicians, plant operating personnel, those responsible for capital equipment procurement, or anyone involved in the water treatment industry requiring an update on the knowledge of drinking water chemistry and treatment approaches.

Course Content

Module (01) Water Chemistry Overview 

• The Water Molecule

• Units of Concentrations used In Water Treatment

• Water Ionization and pH Scale

• Electrolytes and the Concept of Equilibrium

• Solubility vs. Ionization in Water

• Factors Affecting Solubility

• Solubility of Gases in Water and Henry’s Law

• Water Conductivity

• Natural Water Cycle and Carbonate System4

• Saturation Index

• Chemical Injection

Module (02) Clarification

• Description of the Process

• Non-ionic and Anionic Flocculants

• Coagulator Clarifier

• Cold Lime Softening Clarifier

• Lamella Clarifier

• Oil Removal

Module (03) Filtration 

• Occlusion and Adsorption

• Reduction and the Removal of Chlorine

• Gravity Filters

• Pressure Filters

• Activated Carbon Filters

• Greensand Filter, Iron and Manganese Removal

Module (04) Degasification

• Gas Solubility and Reaction with Water

• Effect of pH

• Effect of Temperature

• System Configuration

• Equipment Design Parameters

Module (04) Ion Exchange 

• Water Chemistry Units

• Pre-treatment Requirements of Ion Exchange

• Ion Exchange Resins:

Ìø®Õå_ Synthesis

Ìø®Õå_ Types

Ìø®Õå_ Water of Hydration

• Ion Exchange Softening

Ìø®Õå_ Equipments

Ìø®Õå_ Service and Regeneration Reactions

Ìø®Õå_ Troubleshooting.

• Ion Exchange Dealkalizers

• Decarbonators and Degassifiers

• Condensate Polishing

Ìø®Õå_ Powdered Resin Units

Ìø®Õå_ Magnetic Filtration

Ìø®Õå_ Two-Bed Demineralization 

Module (05) Corrosion

• Introduction to Electrochemistry

• Electrode Potentials and Nernst Equation

• Galvanic Series

• Components of Electrochemical Corrosion

• Types of Corrosion

• Corrosion Inhibitors

• Cathodic Protection

Module (06) Water Analysis

• Conventional Analysis (Titrations)

• Chloride, Hardness, Alkalinity, Acidity

• Using Excel in Chemical Analysis

• Spectrophotometric Analysis

• Silica, Phosphate, Hydrazine, Ammonia

• Using Excel in Standard Calibration Curves

Module (07) Quality Control

• Chemical Analysis for Water Sources

• Biological Analysis

• Complete Chemical Analysis before and After membrane

• Efficiency Measurement 

• Chemical Analysis for Water Production as International Standard

• Chemical Analysis for Storage Water after long time 

Module  (08) Cooling Water Treatment

• Recirculating or Cooling Tower Systems 

• Closed Loop Recirculating Systems 

• How to calculate chemical consumption and water usage? 

• System Performance Monitoring

Ìø®Õå_ Use of Alternative Plant Equipment and Test Sections 

Ìø®Õå_ Commercial Monitoring Instruments

• In-Service Cleaning

Ìø®Õå_ Off-Line Procedures 

Ìø®Õå_ On-Line Procedures

Module (09) Industrial Wastewater Treatment

• Prevention Strategy

• Chemical precipitation

• Ion Exchange

• Adsorption

• Filtration

• Applied biological treatment in industry

Module (10) Health Risk of Selected Chemicals and their Removal

• Arsenic

• Nitrates and nitrites

• Perchlorate

• Radionuclides (Uranium, Radium, Radon)