Course Overview

Since the development of the first practical cellulose acetate membranes in the early 1960’s and the subsequent development of thin-film, composite membranes, the uses of reverse osmosis have expanded to include not only the traditional desalination process but also a wide variety of wastewater treatment applications.  

In addition, RO systems can replace or be used in conjunction with others treatment processes such as oxidation, adsorption, stripping, or biological treatment (as well as many others) to produce a high quality product water that can be reused or discharged. 

To understand how reverse osmosis works, it helps to understand the process of osmosis which is ubiquitous in nature. When two soluions having different dissolved mineral concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, water flows from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated solution.

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the trainees will be aware and understanding of the following:

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Getting familiar with the concentration units used in the field of Water Treatment and understand their significance in the process.

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Understanding the Water and Aqueous Solutions Properties how they affect the process efficiency and availability.

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Understanding the various Treatment Systems that precede the R.O. unit, how they work, what are the differences among them, when to use one of them and how to differentiate among them.

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Understanding the basic theory behind the R.O. system operation and how the previously mentioned objectives can affect its operation and efficiency.

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Become familiar with the various configurations of R.O. systems and the use of each one.

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Getting basic knowledge about corrosion and what parameters affect its severeness and what constituents that should be removed by R.O. and why. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Getting deep thought notes regarding important points in the Chemical Analysis involved in the Water Treatment and also the Instruments used in this trend.

Who Should Attend

This course is prepared to Chemists, Engineers, and Highly Qualified Operators responsible for the Operation of R.O. systems and Chemical Laboratory. Chemists and Technicians responsible for the monitoring of the R.O. systems. The course is designed to start from scratch assuming moderate education and tend to build up information to the level of experienced operators.

Course Content

Module (01) Water Chemistry Overview 

1.1 The Water Molecule

1.2 Units of Concentrations used In Water Treatment

1.3 Water Ionization and pH Scale

1.4 Electrolytes and the Concept of Equilibrium

1.5 Solubility vs. Ionization in Water

1.6 Factors Affecting Solubility

1.7 Solubility of Gases in Water and Henry’s Law

1.8 Water Conductivity

1.9 Natural Water Cycle and Carbonate System4

1.10 Saturation Index

1.11 Chemical Injection

Module (02) Clarification

2.1 Description of the Process

2.2 Non-ionic and Anionic Flocculants

2.3 Coagulator Clarifier

2.4 Cold Lime Softening Clarifier

2.5 Lamella Clarifier

2.6 Oil Removal

Module (03) Filtration 

3.1 Occlusion and Adsorption

3.2 Reduction and the Removal of Chlorine

3.3 Gravity Filters

3.4 Pressure Filters

3.5 Activated Carbon Filters

3.6 Greensand Filter, Iron and Manganese Removal

Module (04) Degasification

4.1 Gas Solubility and Reaction with Water

4.2 Effect of pH

4.3 Effect of Temperature

4.4 System Configuration

4.5 Equipment Design Parameters

Module (05) Reverse Osmosis

5.1 Osmosis and Its Cause

5.2 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

5.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reverse Osmosis

5.4 Membrane Materials & Modules

5.5 Spiral Wound Membranes

5.6 Pressure Tube Construction

5.7 Terms and Calculations

5.8 Single / Double Pass RO System

5.9 Membrane Fouling and Prevention

5.10 Scale Control 

5.11 Scaling Calculations

5.12 Chemical Cleaning Methods

5.13 Cleaning Procedure for Specific Situations 

5.14 Heat Sanitization

Module (06) Corrosion

6.1 Introduction to Electrochemistry

6.2 Electrode Potentials and Nernst Equation

6.3 Galvanic Series

6.4 Components of Electrochemical Corrosion

6.5 Types of Corrosion

6.6 Corrosion Inhibitors

6.7 Cathodic Protection

Module (07) Water Analysis

7.1 Conventional Analysis (Titrations)

7.2 Chloride, Hardness, Alkalinity, Acidity

7.3 Using Excel in Chemical Analysis

7.4 Spectrophotometric Analysis

7.5 Silica, Phosphate, Hydrazine, Ammonia

7.6 Using Excel in Standard Calibration Curves

Module (08) Quality Control

8.1 Chemical Analysis for Water Sources

8.2 Biological Analysis

8.3 Complete Chemical Analysis before and After membrane

8.4 Efficiency Measurement 

8.5 Chemical Analysis for Water Production as International Standard

8.6 Chemical Analysis for Storage Water after long time