Course Overview

Globalization has placed increasing demands on modern process control in terms of quality, safety, flexibility and costs. However, more efficient control can only be achieved through better measurement when the process instrumentation provides the correct information.

The field of process measurement and control is changing at a dramatic rate. Measurements and accuracies that would have been thought of as impossible to achieve are now commonplace.

Further, for many years chemical measurement has remained the preserve of the analytical chemist. More and more, however, on-line analytical measurement is being applied in process control and is increasingly becoming the responsibility of the instrumentation and control technologist.

This course, PRACTICAL Process Instrumentation a Measurement and Sensors, is designed to provide engineers and technicians with the basic theoretical and practical knowledge involved in the selection, application, installation and commissioning of industrial instrumentation and on-line analytical instrumentation.

Although the subject of many hundreds of articles, books, and courses, the basic elements of automatic process control are still widely misunderstood. Worse, the majority of control systems are misapplied. Research carried out by ISA and other bodies indicates that up to 75% of all loops will oscillate when operated in automatic.

Course Objectives

On successful completion of this course delegates will be able to:

• Understand the major technologies used in the measurement of flow, temperature, pressure, and level

• Review the construction and operation of the most important process instruments

• Evaluate and select the appropriate instrumentation system

• Optimize control with effective selection and installation of your process equipment

• Calibrate and troubleshoot instrumentation systems

• Isolate and rectify instrumentation faults

• Appreciate the basics of chemistry and how to read chemical formula

• Understand how analytical chemistry is applied in industry

• Implement procedures for testing and calibration of analytical instruments

• Understand the basics of process analysis using IR spectroscopy and chromatography

• Understand the fundamentals of Process Control

• Define such terms as process lag, capacitance and resistance

• Gain an insight into the process reaction curve

• Avoid incorrect sensor placement

• Distinguish the effect of span on the system performance

• Appreciate the effects of different valve characteristics on the loop performance

• Fully appreciate the effects of proportional, integral and derivative control

• Appreciate the effects on loop tuning using a software-based loop analysis program

• Realize the effects of filtering on loop performance

Who Should Attend

Professionals involved Automation Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Consulting Engineers, Design Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Electricians, Installation and Maintenance Technicians, Instrument and Process Control Engineers and Technicians, Instrument Fitters, Maintenance Engineers, Mechanical Engineers and Technicians, Operations Engineers, Process Engineers, Process Operators, Production Professionals, Project Professionals, System Integrators

Course Content

Module (01) Overview

1.1 Purpose of instrumentation

1.2 Location of control functions

1.3 Variables measured and controlled

1.4 Final control elements

1.5 Instrument operating medium

Module (02) Basic Measurement Concepts

2.1 Measured and controlled variables

2.2 Performance terms and specifications

2.3 Measurement terminology

2.4 P&ID symbols

Module (03) Flow Measurement

3.1 Basic fluid properties

3.2 Reynolds number

3.3 Flow measurement

3.4 Positive Displacement Meters

3.5 Inferential meters

3.6 Oscillatory Flow Meters

3.7 Differential Pressure Meters

3.8 Electromagnetic Flowmeters

3.9 Ultrasonic Flowmeters

3.10 Coriolis meters

3.11 Thermal mass meters

3.12 Open Channel Flow

Module (04) Temperature Measurement

4.1 Basic principles

4.2 Scales

4.3 Expansion systems

4.4 Thermocouples

4.5 Resistance thermometry

4.6 Thermistors

4.7 Radiation thermometry

4.8 Installation considerations

Module (05) Pressure Measurement

5.1 Basic principles

5.2 Manometers

5.3 Dead weight testers

5.4 Bourdon tubes

5.5 Bellow elements

5.6 Diaphragm elements

5.7 Electrical displacement sensors

Module (06) Level Measurement

6.1 Basic principles

6.2 Visual gauging systems

6.3 Float systems

6.4 Displacement systems

6.5 Conductive level detection

6.6 Capacitive level measurement

6.7 Hydrostatic head measurement

6.8 Ultrasonic level measurement

6.9 Radar gauging

6.10 Nuclear level measurement

6.11 Point level measurement

6.12 Load cells

Module (07) Basic Chemistry

7.1 Elements, compounds and mixtures

7.2 Properties of elements

7.3 Formation of ions

7.4 Bonding

7.5 Chemical formulae and equations

7.6 Atomic weight

7.7 Molar concentrations

7.8 Acids and bases

Module (08) Electrochemical Cells

8.1 Electrode potentials

8.2 Simple voltaic cell

8.3 Polarisation

8.4 Daniell cell

8.5 Electrolytic bridges

8.6 Electrochemical series

Module (09) On-line Analytical Measurement

9.1 Measurement of pH

9.2 Measurement of Redox

9.3 Conductivity measurement

9.4 Dissolved oxygen measurement

9.5 Chlorine measurement

9.6 Turbidity measurement

9.7 Hygrometry

9.8 On-line colorimetry and titration

9.9 Infrared Spectroscopy

9.10 Gas chromatography

Module (10) Basic Process Considerations

10.1 Definition of terms

10.2 Process lag, capacitance and resistance

10.3 Process reaction curve

10.4 1st and 2nd order reactions

Module (11) Process Measurement

11.1 Instrumentation cabling

11.2 Filtering

11.3 Aliasing

11.4 Reaction masking

11.5 Sensor placement

11.6 Correct PV

11.7 Effect of span

Module (12) Final Control Element

12.1 Choked flow

12.2 Pressure recovery

12.3 Flashing and cavitation

12.4 Valve construction

12.5 Valve characteristics

12.6 Inherent

12.7 Profiling

12.8 Installed

12.9 Cavitation control

12.10 Actuators

12.11 Diaphragm

12.12 Cylinder

12.13 Electric

12.14 Valve positioners

12.15 Deadband and hysterisis

12.16 Stick-slip

12.17 Testing procedures and analysis

12.18 Effect of valve performance on controllability

Module (13) Fundamentals of Process Control

13.1 ON/OFF control

13.2 Proportional control

13.3 Proportional band vs. proportional gain

13.4 Proportional offset

13.5 Reset

13.6 Integral action

13.7 Integral windup

13.8 Stability

13.9 Bode plot

13.10 Nyquist plot

13.11 Derivative action

13.12 PID control

13.13 Control algorithms

13.14 Load disturbances and offset

13.15 Speed, stability and robustness

Module (14) Fundamentals of Tuning

14.1 Basic principles

14.2 Open loop reaction curve method (Ziegler-Nichols)

14.3 Default and typical settings

14.4 Closed loop continuous cycling method (Ziegler-Nichols)

14.5 Lambda tuning

14.6 Fine tuning

14.7 Tuning for load rejection vs. set-point rejection

14.8 Tuning according to Pessen

14.9 Tuning for different applications

14.10 Speed of response vs. robustness

14.11 Surge tank level control

Module (15) Automated Tuning Systems

15.1 Self tuning loops

15.2 Adaptive control