Course Overview

This course is designed to provide participants with a complete and up-to-date overview of gas conditioning and processing technology. It covers product specifications and the processes available to condition the gas in order to meet these requirements. 

Participants will understand the nature and purpose of key gas processing operations, and how the individual operations are integrated into plants to process diverse feed streams received from gas fields around the world. This course will provide participants with a working knowledge of the major processes for Dehydration, Acid Gas Removal (Gas Sweetening), Hydrocarbon Dewpoint Control (HCDP Control), LPG Production, NGL Recovery and Separation (Fractionation), Sulphur Recovery and Tail Gas Clean-up. Participants will also learn the basic vocabulary unique to the industry and the key physical and chemical properties of natural gas constituents. This course will also cover the important considerations of the design and selection of key process equipment including Separators. 

Basic properties of hydrocarbon gases and the behaviour of water-hydrocarbon systems will be discussed. Participants will learn how to calculate system energy changes. This course will discuss the design and operational aspects of process control systems, separation equipment, absorption and fractionation facilities. Further, the methods used for dehydrating natural gas will be covered within the duration of this important course.

Course Objectives

At the end of this course the trainees bed able to:

• Learn and explain the components found in natural gas produced from field to sales grade specification and why this is important;

• Review and list the major products from a gas plant and how these products can be produced from a gas plant;

• Study and calculate gas law related variables. Use a Mollier Diagram to understand how physical properties are used in gas processing and to calculate some engineering data used in gas plant operations;

• Understand and describe the different gas processing unit operations and be familiar with the terminology associated with gas plant operations;  and

• Some simple engineering calculations will be done for selected unit operations.

Who Should Attend

Gas Processing, Refinery operations personnel, Refinery process Engineers, Other personnel outside the company’s refineries who wish to improve their knowledge of Gas Processing operations.

Course Content

Module 01 Natural Gas Production

1.1 Gas Properties 

1.1.1 Physical Properties of Mixtures

1.1.2 Chemical Composition of Natural Gas

1.2 Natural Gas Processing Industries

1.2.1 Definitions

1.2.2 General Gas Plant Process Schemes

1.2.3 Types of Gas Plants

1.2.4 Gas Plant Operations and Processes

1.2.5 Gas Plant Utilities

Module 02 Separation in Vessels

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Separation Process

2.3 Principles of Separation

3.1 Gravity Separation

3.2 Separation System Problems

3.3 Factors Affecting Separation

2.4 Phases Separation

4.1 Primary Separation

4.2 Secondary Separation

4.3 Mist Extraction

4.4 Liquid Accumulation

4.5 Oil and Water Separation

2.5 Terminology and Applications 

        5.1 Vessels Terminology 

        5.2 Separator Application

2.6 Stage Separation

2.7 Separators Classification

      7.1 The Vessel Shape

      7.2 The Number of Fluids to be Separated

Module 03 Liquid Desiccant (Glycol) Dehydration

3.1 Overview

3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Definitions

3.1.3 Basic Process

3.2 Water Hydrocarbon System Behaviors

3.2.1 Water Content in Natural Gas

3.2.2 Water Dew Point

3.2.3 Dew Point Depression

3.2.4 Hydrates Control in Natural Gas Systems

3.3 Gas Dehydration Systems

3.4  Absorption Using Liquid Desiccants (Glycol Dehydration)

3.4.1 Process Flow and Components

3.4.2 Process Operation

3.4.3 Process Variables

3.4.4 Operating Problems

3.4.5 Process Operation

3.4.6 Troubleshooting

3.5 Hydrate Inhibition in Low Temperature Processing Plant

3.5.1 Glycol Type Selection

3.5.2 Flow Diagram

3.5.3 Injection Systems

3.5.4 Spray Patterns

3.5.5 Troubleshooting

3.6 Hydrate Inhibition in Gas Pipeline

3.6.1 Water Which Can Condense

3.6.2 Hydrate Temperature Reduction

3.6.3 Methods of Injecting Inhibitors

3.6.4 Selection of Inhibitor

Module 04 Solid Desiccant (Mol Sieve) Dehydration

4.1 The Adsorption Process

4.2 Adsorbent Properties

4.3 Adsorbent Types

4.3.1 Alumina

4.3.2 Silica Gel and Silica-Alumina Beads

4.3.3 Molecular Sieve

4.4 Principle of Solid Desiccant Process

4.5 Gas Condition Affecting Adsorption

4.5.1 Temperature

4.5.2 Pressure

4.5.3 Moisture Concentration

4.5.4 Gas Velocity

4.5.5 Contaminants

4.6 Solid Desiccant Design Considerations

4.6.1 Desiccant Design Capacity

4.6.2 Dimensions of Tower

4.6.3 Direction of Gas Flow

4.6.4 Cycle Length

4.6.5 Regeneration

4.6.6 Insulation

4.6.7 Pressure drop

4.7 Dehydration by Solid Desiccant Unit

4.7.1 Process Description

4.7.2 Solid Desiccant Operating Problems

Module 05  Refrigeration and LNG Systems

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Economic of Liquid Separation

5.2.1 Lean Oil Absorption

5.2.2 Refrigeration

5.2.3 Cryogenic

5.3 Gas Chilling

5.4 Cryogenic Process

5.4.1 Dehydration

5.4.2 Chilling

5.4.3 Fractionation

5.5 Refrigeration Systems

Module 06 Fractionation

6.1 Theoretical Principles of Fractional Distillation

6.1.1 Introduction

6.1.2 Vapour Pressure

6.1.3 Partial Pressure

6.1.4 Fundamentals

6.1.5 Equilibrium Constant (“K” Values)

6.1.6 Boiling Point Calculation

6.1.7 Dew Point Calculation

6.1.8 Flash Calculation

6.2 Distillation Principles and Practices 

6.2.1 Fundamentals of Separation in Towers

6.2.2 Fractionator Control

6.2.3 Operating Difficulties

6.2.4 Troubleshooting Operating Problems

6.2.5 Glossary

Module 07  Gas Amine Sweetening  

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Sweetening Process

7.2.1 General Considerations

7.2.2 Methods of Sweetening

7.2.3 How to Select a Gas Sweetening Process

7.2.4 Safety Precautions

7.3 Amine Processes

7.3.1 General Properties

7.3.2 Amine Reactions

7.3.3 How Absorption Occurs?

7.3.4 Summary of Amine Processes

7.3.5 Amine Process Description

7.3.6 Principal Equipment in Sweetening Process

7.3.7 Operation

7.3.8 Trouble Shooting

Module 08 Fuel Gas & Gas Sampling

8.1 Fuel Gas 

8.1.1 Typical Fuel Gas System

8.1.2 Typical Problems

8.2 Gas Sampling

8.2.1 Introduction

8.2.2 Sampling

8.3 Natural Gas Sampling

8.3.1 Equipment

8.3.2 Sample Identification

8.3.3 Sampling Methods

8.4 Analysis of Gas Mixtures