Course Overview

It must be understood that every Steam Boiler system requires a proper Boiler Water Treatment Program with regular water analyses, adequate regulated blowdowns, correct maintenance, periodic safety checks and periodic inspection follow-up. All of these are necessary for long life and efficient boiler service.  

These are some of the basic essentials in your boiler program:

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Soft water should be used at all times to prevent scale build-up and tube stoppage. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Boiler water compound should be selected and regulated on the basis of actual water analysis.  

Ìø‰Û_å¤ The compound must be added in adequate quantities uniformly throughout the shift. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Regular Water Analysis should be made as often as possible but at least every 30 days to assure water treatment is properly regulated.  

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Partial blowdowns should be made in accordance with the Blowdown Instructions.  

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Regular Internal Tube Inspections should be made every 60 days until the Water Treatment Program is properly regulated. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ The Return Tank and pump suction strainer should be inspected and flushed clean every 90 days or as needed. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Proper Grounding of the boiler is necessary if there is a possibility of electrolysis (a form of corrosion) and to help maintain normal tube life.  

Unit Efficiency, Reliability, and Availability can be adversely affected by improper Boiler water chemistry. The results of a multi-million dollar overhaul can be negated during start-up due to improper boiler water chemistry. Finally, Water quality is an essential component of any development, whether it is a resort, residential, recreational, industrial or commercial. In areas where saline water dominates, clean water supplies are typically limited and fresh water usually comes at a premium price.

Course Objectives

The course will enable the participants to:

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Recognize the changers that arise in water/steam cycle of a plant due to impurities in the water.

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Name the measures that should be undertaken to prevent the damage of the plant due to impure water.

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Understand the function of the chemical dosing and sampling systems.

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Describe the items that are required in order to make an informed judgment on the need to chemically clean. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Describe the items that are required in order to determine the solvent to be used for chemically cleaning. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Identify the source of steam contamination and evaluate the effect of steam contamination on Steam Turbine performance. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Identify those indices that influence cooling water deposition. 

Ìø‰Û_å¤ Identify possible remedies for condenser deposition and corrosion. 

Who Should Attend

This course is designed for Chemist and Highly Qualified Laboratory Technicians, Process/Operations Engineers, Supervisors, and Plant Operators whose work related to operate and maintain of different types of Boilers in Power & Water Utilities such as Steam Plant, MSF Desalination Plant and HRSG.

Course Content

Module (01) Boiler Water Treatment Overview

1.1 Classification of Boilers

1.2 Boilers and HRSGs

1.3 Boiler Circulation and Steam Generation

1.3.1 Concentration by Evaporation

1.3.2 Cycles of Concentrations and Blowdown

1.4 Boiler Problems Caused by Water

1.4.1 Scaling

1.4.2 Corrosion

1.4.3 Carryover

1.4.4 HRSG and Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)

Module (02) Behavior of Some Water Impurities Inside Boilers

2.1 Silicic Acid

2.2 Carbonic Acid

2.3 Hardness

2.4 Iron

2.5 Copper

2.6 Condensate Polisher Behavior

2.7 Scale

2.7.1 Types of Scales formed in Boiler

2.7.2 Scale Inhibitors for Each Type of Scale

Module (03) Oxygen Removal

3.1 Chemical Method

3.1.1 Corrosion Mechanisms

3.1.2 Oxygen Scavengers and Metal passivators

3.1.3 Chemical Oxygen Scavengers

3.1.3.1 Hydrazine

3.1.3.2 Sodium sulfite

3.1.3.3 Carbohydrazide

3.1.3.4 Hydroquinone

3.1.3.5 Diethylhydroxylamine

3.2 Mechanical Deaeration

3.2.1 Relative Partial Pressure and Mechanism of Deaeration

3.2.2 Pressure Deaerators

3.2.3 Vacuum Deaerators

Module (04) pH Control and All Volatile Treatment

4.1 Corrosion rate and pH influence

4.2 Chemicals for pH control and Factors Affecting their performance

4.2.1 Ammonium Hydroxide

4.2.2 Cyclohexylamine

4.2.3 Morpholine

4.3 Effect of Ammonia and Hydrazine overdosing

Module (05) Phosphate Treatment

5.1 Scale Prevention

5.2 pH buffering and What is Buffer Solution?

5.3 the Na/PO4 Molar Ratio and (calculation)

5.4 Phosphate Treatment (PT)

5.5 Congruent Phosphate Treatment(CPT)

5.6 Equilibrium Phosphate Treatment (EPT)

5.7 Problems of Improper Phosphate Treatment

5.8 Chemistry of Aqueous Sodium phosphate at Elevate Temperatures

5.9 Phosphate Hideout Mechanism

5.10 Phosphate Reactions with magnetite

5.11 Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)

Module (06) Oxygenated Treatment

6.1 Theory Behind the Method

6.2 Major Differences Between All Volatile Treatment (AVT) and Oxygenated Treatment (OT)

6.3 Factors Affecting Growth of Magnetite with AVT (Reducing)

6.4 Factors Affecting the Growth of Ferric Oxide Hydrate with OT

6.5 Guidelines for OT

Module (07) Corrosion

7.1 Introduction to Electrochemistry

7.2 Electrode Potentials and Nernst Equation

7.3 Galvanic Series

7.4 Components of Electrochemical Corrosion

7.5 Types of Corrosion

7.6 Corrosion Inhibitors

7.7 Cathodic Protection

Module (08) Boiler Tube Failure

8.1 Water Formed and Steam Formed Deposits

8.2 Examples, Identification, Causes and Prevention:

8.2.1 Long Term Overheating

8.2.2 Short  Term Overheating

8.2.3 Caustic Corrosion

8.2.4 Low-pH Corrosion

8.2.5 Oxygen Corrosion

8.2.6 Hydrogen Damage

Module (09) Boiler Chemical Cleaning and Preservation

9.1 Reasons for Chemical Cleaning

9.2 Safety Precautions before Commencing the Cleaning

9.3 Typical Cleaning Procedure

9.4 Chemicals are used :

9.4.1 Ammoniated citric acid

9.4.2 Thiourea

9.4.3 Sodium nitrite

9.4.4 Ammonium

9.4.5  Bifluoride

9.5  Boiler Preservation During Outage

9.5.1 Preservation During Short Term

9.5.2 Preservation During Long Term

9.5.3 Wet Preservation

9.5.4 Dry Preservation

Module (10) Boiler Carry Over Control

10.1 Carry Over Mechanisms

10.2 Steam Purification

10.3 Monitoring carry Over

10.4 Clean Steam Systems